Tulcea county occupies the northern half of the historical region of Dobrogea, located in the southeastern extremity of Romania, whose meaning comes from its settlement at the Danube mouths and the exit to the Black Sea.

Jijila commune is one of the largest communes of Tulcea County, being located in its northwest, at a distance of 69 km from the county residence town. From a structural point of view, the surface of Jijila commune (that also includes the village Garvăn) falls into the tectonic unit of Măcin Mountains (in their north – western expansion).
45° parallel north latitude cuts the county of Tulcea in the central part, and the meridian 290 41′ 24″ west longitude runs through Sulina, located at the eastern extremity of Romania.
In terms of geomorphology, the territory of the commune involves two distinct landforms, namely: the first form is characterized by the last ramifications of Măcin Mountains, with an altitude of 40-80 meters and with maximal values in Dealul Sărăriei – 152, 1 meters and Dealul Mare with 141,6 meters.
Within the Hercinic relief is distinguished a peak superposed to the suburban area of the village Garvăn and a peak of the suburban area of the village Jijila, with a sequel towards Măcin. The second landform that we find in the area of Jijila belongs to the one specific to the Danube Floodplain. The climate does not differ from the other settlements of the Lower Danube. It is temperate- continental with winds from the North, North East and North West. In general, the natural conditions of soil, climate and relief were and are favorable to the development of the agriculture.
In terms of soil resources, in the north and southeast part of the village are found the muddy sandy alluvial deposits of the Danube, where there are no resources of useful, recoverable mineral substances. In the rest of the commune there are a number of mineral substances especially rocks that can be exploited in the quarry. The quartz rocks are sporadically exploited in the quarries Orliga and Gorgani, being used as road stone and concrete preparation as well as for the manufacturing of the refractory products. The estimated reserves are large and can be exploited in favorable conditions. The granite is abundant in the central and south part of the commune. The formations of loess, formed in the Middle and Upper Pleistocene are found over large areas and constitute enormous resources. In both localities of the commune were exploited solid useful mineral substances. At Jijila were extracted quartzite and kaolin. The quartzite was taken out from Orliga Quarry, located 3 km southwest of Jijila and 5 km northwest of Măcin. Sporadically and artisanal was extracted quartzite also from the slopes and ridge of Orliga Hill.

Jijila commune developed due to some projects initiated by the local public administration that have been completed and implemented for the development of the local infrastructure. For this reason, Jijila village is among the first in the county which has natural gas network, to which is added a new network of drinking water supply, both for Jijila as well as for Garvăn. To all these are added two new schools built with European funds properly arranged and equipped.

History

As human habitation, Jijila locality and its hinterland present archaeological traces dating back for thousands of years. On the commune territory were discovered Getic vestiges from Hallstat (the first Iron Age) dated in the centuries IV – III BC, with continuity in the next period, but also Roman vestiges with early feudal overlaps. The historical documents regarding Jijila locality are quite few, problem faced by our historiography in regards to the history of many settlements of Dobrogea from the Ottoman period.

The only mentions we have are from the military maps and from the notes of some foreign travelers that cross Dobrogea during this period. It seems that the village was founded by the Crimean Tatars in the early eighteenth century. But, in time, the Romanians in Bessarabia, which entered under tsarist authority in 1812, will immigrate in large numbers in 1817, forcing the Tatars to leave the settlement. Jijila commune is an ancient locality.

 

The first documentary mention of Jijila locality we discover in the Russian map of war drawn up for Dobrogea during the Russian- Turkish war in the years 1828 – 1829. The Polish agent Korsac, that crosses these places in 1849, finds Jijila locality as being part of the rural district of Măcin. Djidjila-this is how the famous agronomist Ion Ionescu from Brad calls it. According to its findings, Jijila is a locality inhabited by Romanians in 1850. In the fund of the Ottoman tapu, the locality appears under the name of Cicila.

Lacustrian area, with saltmarshes remaining after draining,Jijila constitutes a specific perimeter for sports fishing. To this element of attractions are added the surroundings that present unexplored potential for agritourism. In addition to these sights, Jijila commune has the vicinity of Măcin Mountains National Park.

The nearest urban locality is Măcin town, located at a distance of 8 km from the commune. Today, Jijila commune consists of the following: of Jijila residence locality and of Garvăn village.

Jijila commune is bordered:

  • To the N: the border with Ukraine, natural border on the Danube River, on a length of about 4 km;
  • To the N E : the administrative territory of Grindu commune ( former Pisica );
  • To the E : the administrative territory of Văcăreni commune;
  • To the S E : the administrative territory of Greci commune;
  • To the S : the administrative territory of Măcin town;
  • To the W : the administrative territory of Smârdan commune ( former Ghecet );
  • To the NW : the administrative territory of I.C. Brătianu commune ( former 23 August; Zaclău)

The administrative territory of Jijila commune is bordered by the following territories:  to the northeast the administrative territory of Grindu commune; to the south the administrative territory of Măcin town;  to the southeast is the administrative territory of Greci commune and to the east is the administrative territory of Văcăreni commune, to the west the administrative territory of Smârdan commune..

In the vicinity are two large urban agglomerations with great influence over the two localities: Brăila municipality, Brăila county (24 km) and Galaţi municipality, Galaţi county (20 km).

Jijila locality is bordered to the North by the villages Garvăn and Văcăreni, to the East by Luncavița locality, to the South by Măcin town, and to the South – East by Greci locality, to the west by Smârdan locality.  As typology, the ancient village, which was grouped in the immediate proximity of Jijila marsh towards the Danube may fall in the type of compactly gathered villages. In fact, the further development to the West and the expansion to the North and South during the first decades of the twentieth century, have the same compact characteristic. If the old hearth, the initial nucleus of the village, grouped around the church where there are located also most of the public institutions and where was outlined also the civic center by the natural location of the households, is not inscribed in a certain order, everything that was built subsequently was made based on a plan of systematization, with straight streets, arranged, with the houses lined up to the road. Thus the modern village has rectangular streets, densely inhabited areas, a gathered structure.

Garvăn locality  is located in the Northwest of Tulcea County, 4 km from Jijila commune, to the southwest. In the Northwest part is bordered by the locality I. C. Brătianu and Grindu, to the East by Văcăreni locality,  and to the South-East and South-West by Jijila locality. Until the last administrative-territorial organization (the one in 1968) Garvăn village belonged to Văcăreni commune, which was disbanded. Since 1968, Garvăn village remained belonging to Jijila commune. Garvăn village is located at the crossroads D.N. 22 Brăila-Măcin-Tulcea, with D.N. I. C. Brătianu-Garvăn, being placed in the contact area between the Danube Floodplain and the highlands of the North Dobrogea of Măcin Mountains. In the area of Garvăn village are not found permanent watercourses, and the teeming pluvial waters are routed towards the Danube through arranged canals. In the peaks located west of Garvăn locality as in the whole promontory that plunges in the floodplain deposits, outcrop mesometamorphic rocks belonging to Seriei de Megina pierced by intrusions of the type of granitoids and dolerite veins. Rocks with the role of groundwater collector can be the crystalline and Paleozoic rocks (fissure type collector) in the fault line or intensely tectonised zones but especially the quaternary deposits in the Danube Floodplain (porous – permeable collector type). Collectors with local character may occur under the loess in the wastelands constituted of disaggregated rocks from the foundation and redistributed by the circulation of river waters in torrential episodes. The hydrographic network is characterized by large valleys, silted, that flow towards the Danube or towards the former lake Jijila. The presence of water on these courses is recorded sporadically, in the form of torrents, after snowmelt or during the periods of abundant precipitation.